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Environ Sci Technol. 2015 Aug 4;49(15):9331-40. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b02078. Epub 2015 Jul 22.

Concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants in California Children's Whole Blood and Residential Dust.

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†School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, United States.
‡Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, California Department of Toxic Substances Control, Berkeley, California 94710-2721, United States.
§Sequoia Foundation, La Jolla, California 92037, United States.


We evaluated relationships between persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels in the blood of children with leukemia and POP levels in dust from their household vacuum cleaners. Blood and dust were collected from participants of the California Childhood Leukemia Study at various intervals from 1999 to 2007 and analyzed for two polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), two polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and two organochlorine pesticides using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Due to small blood sample volumes (100 μL), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and BDE-153 were the only analytes with detection frequencies above 70%. For each analyte, depending on its detection frequency, a multivariable linear or logistic regression model was used to evaluate the relationship between POP levels in blood and dust, adjusting for child's age, ethnicity, and breastfeeding duration; mother's country of origin; household annual income; and blood sampling date. In linear regression, concentrations of BDE-153 in blood and dust were positively associated; whereas, DDE concentrations in blood were positively associated with breastfeeding, maternal birth outside the U.S., and Hispanic ethnicity, but not with corresponding dust-DDE concentrations. The probability of PCB-153 detection in a child's blood was marginally associated with dust-PCB-153 concentrations (p = 0.08) in logistic regression and significantly associated with breastfeeding. Our findings suggest that dust ingestion is a source of children's exposure to certain POPs.

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