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Hepatology. 2015 Oct;62(4):1047-58. doi: 10.1002/hep.27971. Epub 2015 Aug 22.

Temporal dynamics of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines during sofosbuvir and ribavirin therapy for genotype 2 and 3 hepatitis C infection.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.
2
Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.
3
Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA.

Abstract

The analysis of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines produced during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has advanced our understanding of viral-host interactions and identified predictors of treatment response. Administration of interferons (IFNs) made it difficult to interpret biomarkers of immune activation during treatment. Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens without IFN are now being used to treat HCV with excellent efficacy. To gain insight into HCV-host interactions occurring before, during, and after HCV treatment, we performed a case-control study that measured serial plasma levels of IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein 1 beta (MIP-1β), and interleukin-18 (IL-18) in 131 patients with chronic HCV treated with sofosbuvir (SOF) plus ribavirin (RBV). A linear regression analysis using baseline factors identified strong positive associations between elevated alanine aminotransferase and pretreatment IP-10 and between the presence of cirrhosis and elevated pretreatment IL-18. Mean IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1β, and IL-18 levels all decline on therapy, but display different dynamics late in treatment and after cessation of therapy. On treatment, IP-10 and MIP-1β levels were significantly higher in individuals who achieved sustained virological response (SVR). Logistic regression analyses examining treatment response in all patients demonstrated significant associations between higher baseline MIP-1β levels and smaller decreases in MIP-1β early in treatment and SVR. Higher early MIP-1β levels were also significantly associated with SVR in subsets of patients with cirrhosis and individuals with genotype 3 (GT3) infection, two factors associated with decreased responsiveness to treatment.

CONCLUSION:

Changes in IP-10 levels mirror HCV RNA, suggesting that IP-10 is an indicator of innate immune viral recognition. MIP-1β levels remain elevated in GT2/3 patients who achieved SVR, suggesting differential immune activation in those who respond to SOF/RBV therapy and a potential role in predicting treatment responses.

PMID:
26147061
PMCID:
PMC4589477
DOI:
10.1002/hep.27971
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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