Send to

Choose Destination
Psychol Assess. 2016 Jan;28(1):51-8. doi: 10.1037/a0039337. Epub 2015 Jul 6.

Assessing the Everyday Discrimination Scale among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

Author information

School of Community Health, College of Urban and Public Affairs, Portland State University.
Department of General Internal Medicine, University of Washington.
Department of Social Work, College of Health and Human Sciences, Western Carolina University.
Health Outcomes Program, University of Colorado Denver.
Centers for American Indian and Alaska Native Health, University of Colorado Denver.
Division of Diabetes Treatment and Prevention, Indian Health Service.


The Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS) has been used widely as a measure of subjective experiences of discrimination. The usefulness of this measure for assessments of perceived experiences of discrimination by American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) peoples has not been explored. Data derived from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians--Healthy Heart Demonstration Project (SDPI-HH), a large-scale initiative to reduce cardiovascular risk among AI/ANs with Type 2 diabetes. Participants (N = 3,039) completed a self-report survey that included the EDS and measures of convergent and divergent validity. Missing data were estimated by multiple imputation techniques. Reliability estimates for the EDS were calculated, yielding a single factor with high internal consistency (α = .92). Younger, more educated respondents reported greater perceived discrimination; retired or widowed respondents reported less. Convergent validity was evidenced by levels of distress, anger, and hostility, which increased as the level of perceived discrimination increased (all p < .001). Divergent validity was evidenced by the absence of an association between EDS and resilient coping. Resilient coping and insulin-specific diabetes knowledge were not significantly associated with perceived discrimination (p = .61 and 0.16, respectively). However, general diabetes-related health knowledge was significantly associated with perceived discrimination (p = .02). The EDS is a promising measure for assessing perceived experiences of discrimination among those AI/ANs who participated in the SDPI-HH.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for American Psychological Association Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center