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Mediators Inflamm. 2015;2015:593075. doi: 10.1155/2015/593075. Epub 2015 Jun 4.

Adaptive Immunity and Antigen-Specific Activation in Obesity-Associated Insulin Resistance.

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Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a metabolic disease that is strongly tied to obesity and often preceded by insulin resistance (IR). It has been established that chronic inflammation of hypertrophic adipose tissue depots in obese individuals leads to obesity-associated IR and is mediated by cells of the innate immune system, particularly macrophages. More recently, cells of the adaptive immune system, B and T lymphocytes, have also emerged as important regulators of glucose homeostasis, raising the intriguing possibility that antigen-driven immune responses play a role in disease. In this review, we critically evaluate the roles that various B and T cell subsets play in IR, and then we examine the data suggesting that antigen-driven mechanisms, such as antigen presentation and costimulation, may drive the activity of these lymphocytes.

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