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Dermatol Clin. 2015 Jul;33(3):315-29. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2015.03.001. Epub 2015 May 13.

Granuloma Annulare.

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Department of Dermatology, Northwestern University, 676 North St Clair, Suite 1600, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. Electronic address:


Granuloma annulare (GA) is a noninfectious granulomatous skin condition that can present with a variety of cutaneous morphologies. It is characterized by collagen degeneration, mucin deposition, and palisaded or interstitial histiocytes. Although the mechanism underlying development of GA is unknown, studies point to a cell-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to an as-yet undetermined antigen. Systemic associations with diabetes, thyroid disorders, lipid abnormalities, malignancy, and infection are described in atypical GA. Treatment is divided into localized skin-directed therapies and systemic immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive therapies. The selected treatment modality should be based on disease severity, comorbid conditions, consideration of potential side effects, and patient preference.


GA diabetes; GA etiology; GA hyperlipidemia; GA infection; GA malignancy; GA thyroid; GA treatment; Granuloma annulare (GA)

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