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Ann Chir Plast Esthet. 2015 Oct;60(5):363-9. doi: 10.1016/j.anplas.2015.05.010. Epub 2015 Jul 2.

[Motor nerves of the face. Surgical and radiologic anatomy of facial paralysis and their surgical repair].

[Article in French]

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Service de chirurgie maxillo-faciale et stomatologie, hôpital Beaujon, AP-HP, 100, boulevard du Général-Leclerc, 92118 Clichy cedex, France; EA4465, URDIA, 45, rue des Saints-Pères, 75270 Paris cedex 06, France; Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10, avenue Villemin, 75010 Paris, France. Electronic address:
Service de radiologie, CSE, 13, rue Beaurepaire, 75010 Paris, France.


Motor innervation of the face depends on the facial nerve for the mobility of the face, on the mandibular nerve, third branch of the trigeminal nerve, which gives the motor innervation of the masticator muscles, and the hypoglossal nerve for the tongue. In case of facial paralysis, the most common palliative surgical techniques are the lengthening temporalis myoplasty (the temporal is innervated by the mandibular nerve) and the hypoglossal-facial anastomosis. The aim of this work is to describe the surgical anatomy of these three nerves and the radiologic anatomy of the facial nerve inside the temporal bone. Then the facial nerve penetrates inside the parotid gland giving a plexus. Four branches of the facial nerve leave the parotid gland: they are called temporal, zygomatic, buccal and marginal which give innervation to the cutaneous muscles of the face. Mandibular nerve gives three branches to the temporal muscles: the anterior, intermediate and posterior deep temporal nerves which penetrate inside the deep aspect of the temporal muscle in front of the infratemporal line. The hypoglossal nerve is only the motor nerve to the tongue. The ansa cervicalis, which is coming from the superficial cervical plexus and joins the hypoglossal nerve in the submandibular area is giving the motor innervation to subhyoid muscles and to the geniohyoid muscle.


Anatomie; Anatomy; Facial nerve; Hypoglossal nerve; Mandibular nerve; Nerf facial; Nerf hypoglosse; Nerf mandibulaire; Radiologie; Radiology

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