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Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2015 Aug;240(8):1019-28. doi: 10.1177/1535370215593826. Epub 2015 Jul 3.

Galectin-3 in autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases.

Author information

1
Coimbra Group Fellowship for Latin American Professors, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ CEP 21941-902, Brazil Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Padova, Padova 35128, Italy.
2
Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Padova, Padova 35128, Italy.
3
Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Padova, Padova 35128, Italy adoria@unipd.it.

Abstract

Galectin-3 (gal-3) is a β-galactoside-binding lectin, which regulates cell-cell and extracellular interactions during self/non-self-antigen recognition and cellular activation, proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. It plays a significant role in cellular and tissue pathophysiology by organizing niches that drive inflammation and immune responses. Gal-3 has some therapeutic potential in several diseases, including chronic inflammatory disorders, cancer and autoimmune diseases. Gal-3 exerts a broad spectrum of functions which differs according to its intra- or extracellular localization. Recombinant gal-3 strategy has been used to identify potential mode of action of gal-3; however, exogenous gal-3 may not reproduce the functions of the endogenous gal-3. Notably, gal-3 induces monocyte-macrophage differentiation, interferes with dendritic cell fate decision, regulates apoptosis on T lymphocytes and inhibits B-lymphocyte differentiation into immunoglobulin secreting plasma cells. Considering the influence of these cell populations in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, gal-3 seems to play a role in development of autoimmunity. Gal-3 has been suggested as a potential therapeutic agent in patients affected with some autoimmune disorders. However, the precise role of gal-3 in driving the inflammatory process in autoimmune or immune-mediated disorders remains elusive. Here, we reviewed the involvement of gal-3 in cellular and tissue events during autoimmune and immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.

KEYWORDS:

Galectin-3; autoimmune diseases; autoimmunity

PMID:
26142116
PMCID:
PMC4935288
DOI:
10.1177/1535370215593826
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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