Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2015 Jul;25(3):415-28. doi: 10.1016/j.giec.2015.02.010.

Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.
2
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX 75390, USA; Medical Service, Gastroenterology Section 111B1, Dallas VA Medical Center, 4500 S Lancaster Road, Dallas, TX 75216, USA. Electronic address: byron.cryer@utsouthwestern.edu.

Abstract

Although the incidence of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) has been decreasing worldwide, nonvariceal UGIB continues to be a significant problem. Even with the advent of advanced endoscopic procedures and potent medications to suppress acid production, UGIB carries significant morbidity and mortality. Some of the most common risk factors for nonvariceal UGIB include Helicobacter pylori infection, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), aspirin, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and other antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications. In patients with cardiovascular disease and kidney disease, UGIB tends to be more severe and has greater morbidity. Many of the newer NSAIDs have been removed from the market.

KEYWORDS:

Aspirin; Clopidogrel; Epidemiology; Helicobacter pylori; Incidence; Mortality; NSAIDs; Risk factors

PMID:
26142028
DOI:
10.1016/j.giec.2015.02.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center