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Plant Cell Rep. 2015 Oct;34(10):1807-15. doi: 10.1007/s00299-015-1826-5. Epub 2015 Jul 2.

Parameters affecting frequency of CRISPR/Cas9 mediated targeted mutagenesis in rice.

Mikami M1,2, Toki S1,2,3, Endo M4.

Author information

1
Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, 22-2 Seto, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 236-0027, Japan.
2
Plant Genome Engineering Research Unit, Agrogenomics Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 2-1-2 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8602, Japan.
3
Kihara Institute for Biological Research, Yokohama City University, 641-12 Maioka-cho, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 244-0813, Japan.
4
Plant Genome Engineering Research Unit, Agrogenomics Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 2-1-2 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8602, Japan. mendo@affrc.go.jp.

Abstract

Frequency of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis varies depending on Cas9 expression level and culture period of rice callus. Recent reports have demonstrated that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can function as a sequence-specific nuclease in various plant species. Induction of mutation in proliferating tissue during embryogenesis or in germline cells is a practical means of generating heritable mutations. In the case of plant species in which cultured cells are used for transformation, non-chimeric plants can be obtained when regeneration occurs from mutated cells. Since plantlets are regenerated from both mutated and non-mutated cells in a random manner, any increment in the proportion of mutated cells in Cas9- and guide RNA (gRNA)-expressing cells will help increase the number of plants containing heritable mutations. In this study, we examined factors affecting mutation frequency in rice calli. Following sequential transformation of rice calli with Cas9- and gRNA- expression constructs, the mutation frequency in independent Cas9 transgenic lines was analyzed. A positive correlation between Cas9 expression level and mutation frequency was found. This positive relationship was observed regardless of whether the transgene or an endogenous gene was used as the target for CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis. Furthermore, we found that extending the culture period increased the proportion of mutated cells as well as the variety of mutations obtained. Because mutated and non-mutated cells might proliferate equally, these results suggest that a prolonged tissue culture period increases the chance of inducing de novo mutations in non-mutated cells. This fundamental knowledge will help improve systems for obtaining non-chimeric regenerated plants in many plant species.

KEYWORDS:

CRISPR/Cas9; Callus; Genome editing; Rice; Targeted mutagenesis

PMID:
26134856
DOI:
10.1007/s00299-015-1826-5
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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