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West J Nurs Res. 2016 Apr;38(4):394-410. doi: 10.1177/0193945915593180. Epub 2015 Jun 30.

Effect of Preferred Music on Agitation After Traumatic Brain Injury.

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Department of Nursing, Eulji University, Seongnam, South Korea
School of Nrusing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA.
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South Korea.


Agitation is a common behavioral problem after traumatic brain injury (TBI), which threatens the safety of patients and caregivers and disrupts the rehabilitation process. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a preferred music intervention on the reduction of agitation in TBI patients and to compare the effects of preferred music with those of classical "relaxation" music. A single group, within-subjects, randomized crossover trial design was formed, consisting of 14 agitated patients with cognitive impairment after severe TBI. Patients listened to preferred music and classical "relaxation" music, with a wash-out period in between. Patients listening to the preferred music reported a significantly greater reduction in agitation compared with the effect seen during the classical "relaxation" music intervention (p = .046). These findings provide preliminary evidence that the preferred music intervention may be effective as an environmental therapeutic approach for reducing agitation after TBI.


agitation; familiarity; music intervention; traumatic brain injury

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