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Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015 Sep;24(9):1398-406. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-0137. Epub 2015 Jun 30.

Coffee Consumption and Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma by Sex: The Liver Cancer Pooling Project.

Author information

1
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland. jessica.petrick@nih.gov.
2
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland.
3
Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland.
4
Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts.
5
Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
6
Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
7
Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
8
Department of Medicine, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
9
Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia.
10
Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.
11
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
12
AARP, Washington, DC.
13
Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
14
Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
15
Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC.
16
Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York.
17
Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Coffee consumption has been reported to be inversely associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of liver cancer. Caffeine has chemopreventive properties, but whether caffeine is responsible for the coffee-HCC association is not well studied. In addition, few studies have examined the relationship by sex, and no studies have examined whether there is an association between coffee and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), the second most common type of liver cancer.

METHODS:

In the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, a consortium of U.S.-based cohort studies, data from 1,212,893 individuals (HCC, n = 860; ICC, n = 260) in nine cohorts were pooled. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using proportional hazards regression.

RESULTS:

Higher coffee consumption was associated with lower risk of HCC (HR>3 cups/day vs. non-drinker, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.53-0.99; Ptrend cups/day = <0.0001). More notable reduced risk was seen among women than men (Pinteraction = 0.07). Women who consumed more than three cups of coffee per day were at a 54% lower risk of HCC (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.26-0.81), whereas men had more modest reduced risk of HCC (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.63-1.37). The associations were stronger for caffeinated coffee (HR>3 cups/day vs. non-drinker, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.50-1.01) than decaffeinated coffee (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.55-1.54). There was no association between coffee consumption and ICC.

CONCLUSIONS:

These findings suggest that, in a U.S. population, coffee consumption is associated with reduced risk of HCC.

IMPACT:

Further research into specific coffee compounds and mechanisms that may account for these associations is needed.

PMID:
26126626
PMCID:
PMC4576990
DOI:
10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-0137
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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