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Environ Pollut. 2015 Oct;205:357-64. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2015.06.007. Epub 2015 Jun 28.

Temperature as a modifier of the effects of fine particulate matter on acute mortality in Hong Kong.

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School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China. Electronic address:


Interactions between particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and temperature on mortality have not been well studied, and results are difficult to synthesize. We aimed to assess modification of temperature on the association between PM2.5 and cause-specific mortality by stratifying temperature into low, medium, and high stratum in Hong Kong, using data from 1999 to 2011. The mortality effects of PM2.5 were stronger in low temperature stratum than those in high. The excess risk (%) per 10 μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 at lag 0-1 in low temperature stratum were 0.94% (95% confidence interval: 0.65, 1.24) for all natural, 0.88% (0.38, 1.37) for cardiovascular, and 1.15% (0.51, 1.79) for respiratory mortality. We found statistically significant interaction of PM2.5 and temperature between low and high temperature stratum for all natural mortality. Our results suggested that temperature might modify mortality effects of PM2.5 in Hong Kong.


Fine particulate matter; Hong Kong; Interaction; Mortality; Temperature

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