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Addiction. 2015 Oct;110(10):1636-43. doi: 10.1111/add.13030. Epub 2015 Aug 4.

Licit and illicit substance use among people who inject drugs and the association with subsequent suicidal attempt.

Author information

1
Research Center, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM), Montréal, Canada.
2
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada.
3
Department of Family and Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada.
4
Addiction Research and Study Program, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Longueuil, Canada.
5
Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec, Montréal, Canada.
6
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada.
7
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, Canada.
8
Department of Psychoeducation, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Canada.

Abstract

AIM:

To estimate associations between recent licit and illicit substance use and subsequent suicide attempt among people who inject drugs (PWID).

DESIGN:

Secondary analysis of longitudinal data from a prospective cohort study of PWID followed bi-annually between 2004 and 2011.

SETTING:

Montréal, Canada.

PARTICIPANTS:

Seven hundred and ninety-seven PWID who reported injection drug use in the previous 6 months, contributing to a total of 4460 study visits. The median number of visits per participant was five (interquartile range: 3-8).

MEASUREMENTS:

An interviewer-administered questionnaire eliciting information on socio-demographic factors, detailed information on substance use patterns and related behaviours, mental health markers and suicide attempt. The primary exposure variables examined were past-month use of alcohol [heavy (≥ 60 drinks); moderate (one to 59 drinks); none], sedative-hypnotics, cannabis, cocaine, amphetamine and opioids [regular (≥ 4 days); occasional (1-3 days); none]. The outcome was a binary measure of suicide attempt assessed in reference to the previous 6 months.

FINDINGS:

In multivariate analyses, a positive association was found among licit substances between heavy alcohol consumption [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.05; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.12-3.75], regular use of sedative-hypnotics (AOR = 1.89; 95% CI = 1.21-2.95) and subsequent attempted suicide. Among illicit substances, occasional use of cannabis (AOR = 1.84; 95% CI = 1.09-3.13) had a positive association with subsequent suicide attempt. No statistically significant association was found for the remaining substances.

CONCLUSION:

Among people who inject drugs, use of alcohol, sedative-hypnotics and cannabis, but not cocaine, amphetamine or opioids, appears to be associated with an increased likelihood of later attempted suicide.

KEYWORDS:

Alcohol; amphetamine; cannabis; cocaine; drug use; opioids; sedative; suicide

PMID:
26119212
DOI:
10.1111/add.13030
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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