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Photochem Photobiol. 2015 Sep-Oct;91(5):1150-5. doi: 10.1111/php.12486. Epub 2015 Jul 24.

Effect of 808 nm Diode Laser on Swimming Behavior, Food Vacuole Formation and Endogenous ATP Production of Paramecium primaurelia (Protozoa).

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Department of Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences, Protistology Laboratory, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.
Department of Pharmacy, Biochemistry Laboratory, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.
Department of Surgical Sciences and Integrated Diagnostic, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.


Photobiomodulation (PBM) has been used in clinical practice for more than 40 years. To clarify the mechanisms of action of PBM at cellular and organism levels, we investigated its effect on Paramecium primaurelia (Protozoa) irradiated by an 808 nm infrared diode laser with a flat-top handpiece (1 W in CW). Our results led to the conclusion that: (1) the 808 nm laser stimulates the P. primaurelia without a thermal effect, (2) the laser effect is demonstrated by an increase in swimming speed and in food vacuole formation, (3) the laser treatment affects endogenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in a positive way, (4) the effects of irradiation dose suggest an optimum exposure time of 50 s (64 J cm(-2) of fluence) to stimulate the Paramecium cells; irradiation of 25 s shows no effect or only mild effects and irradiation up to 100 s does not increase the effect observed with 50 s of treatment, (5) the increment of endogenous ATP concentration highlights the positive photobiomodulating effect of the 808 nm laser and the optimal irradiation conditions by the flat-top handpiece.

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