Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Sci Rep. 2015 Jun 26;5:11611. doi: 10.1038/srep11611.

Environmental enrichment and abstinence attenuate ketamine-induced cardiac and renal toxicity.

Author information

1
Ningbo University School of Medicine, 818 Fenghua Road, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211, P. R. China.
2
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA.
3
Ningbo Kangning Hospital, 1 Zhuangyu Road, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315731, P.R.China.
4
Ningbo Addiction Research and Treatment Center, 42 Xibei Rd., Ningbo, Zhejiang 315040, P.R.China.
5
1] Ningbo University School of Medicine, 818 Fenghua Road, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211, P. R. China [2] Ningbo Addiction Research and Treatment Center, 42 Xibei Rd., Ningbo, Zhejiang 315040, P.R.China.

Abstract

The current study was designed to investigate the effect of abstinence in combination with environmental enrichment (EE) on cardiac and renal toxicity induced by 2 weeks of ketamine self-administration (SA) in rodents. In Experiment 1, one group of rats underwent ketamine SA for 14 days. In Experiment 2, the animals completed 2 weeks of ketamine SA followed by 2 and 4 weeks of abstinence. In Experiment 3, animals underwent 14 days of ketamine SA and 4 weeks of abstinence in which isolated environment (IE) and EE was introduced. The corresponding control groups were included for each experiment. Two weeks of ketamine SA caused significant increases in organ weight, Apoptosis Stimulating Fragment/Kidney Injury Molecule-1, and apoptotic level of heart and kidney. The extended length of withdrawal from ketamine SA partially reduced toxicity on the heart and kidney. Finally, introduction of EE during the period of abstinence greatly promoted the effect of abstinence on ketamine-induced cardiac and renal toxicity. The interactive effect of EE and abstinence was promising to promote the recovery of cardiac and renal toxicity of ketamine.

PMID:
26112338
PMCID:
PMC4481381
DOI:
10.1038/srep11611
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center