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J Dent. 2015 Aug;43(8):955-64. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2015.06.003. Epub 2015 Jun 22.

A novel colourimetric technique to assess chewing function using two-coloured specimens: Validation and application.

Author information

1
Division of Gerodontology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, Freiburgstrasse 7, 3010 Bern, Switzerland; Division of Gerodontology and Removable Prosthodontics, Dental University Clinic, University of Geneva, rue Barthélemy-Menn 19, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address: martin.schimmel@zmk.unibe.ch.
2
Private Practice of Orthodontics, Ch de la Caroline 18 A, 1213 Petit Lancy, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address: slowdent@yahoo.com.
3
Division of Preventive Dentistry, Department of Oral Health Science, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata University, 2-5274, Gakkocho-Dori, Chuo-ku, 951-8514 Niigata, Japan. Electronic address: hideomiy@dent.niigata-u.ac.jp.
4
Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Athens, 2 Thivon Street, 11527 Goudi, Athens, Greece. Electronic address: dhal@dhal.com.
5
Department of Internal Medicine, Rehabilitation and Geriatrics, University Hospitals of Geneva, Chemin du Pont Bochet, 1226 Thônex, Switzerland. Electronic address: francois.herrmann@hcuge.ch.
6
Division of Gerodontology and Removable Prosthodontics, Dental University Clinic, University of Geneva, rue Barthélemy-Menn 19, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland; Department of Internal Medicine, Rehabilitation and Geriatrics, University Hospitals of Geneva, Chemin du Pont Bochet, 1226 Thônex, Switzerland. Electronic address: frauke.mueller@unige.ch.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Chewing efficiency may be evaluated using cohesive specimen, especially in elderly or dysphagic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate three two-coloured chewing gums for a colour-mixing ability test and to validate a new purpose built software (ViewGum©).

METHODS:

Dentate participants (dentate-group) and edentulous patients with mandibular two-implant overdentures (IOD-group) were recruited. First, the dentate-group chewed three different types of two-coloured gum (gum1-gum3) for 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 chewing cycles. Subsequently the number of chewing cycles with the highest intra- and inter-rater agreement was determined visually by applying a scale (SA) and opto-electronically (ViewGum©, Bland-Altman analysis). The ViewGum© software determines semi-automatically the variance of hue (VOH); inadequate mixing presents with larger VOH than complete mixing. Secondly, the dentate-group and the IOD-group were compared.

RESULTS:

The dentate-group comprised 20 participants (10 female, 30.3±6.7 years); the IOD-group 15 participants (10 female, 74.6±8.3 years). Intra-rater and inter-rater agreement (SA) was very high at 20 chewing cycles (95.00-98.75%). Gums 1-3 showed different colour-mixing characteristics as a function of chewing cycles, gum1 showed a logarithmic association; gum2 and gum3 demonstrated more linear behaviours. However, the number of chewing cycles could be predicted in all specimens from VOH (all p<0.0001, mixed linear regression models). Both analyses proved discriminative to the dental state.

CONCLUSION:

ViewGum© proved to be a reliable and discriminative tool to opto-electronically assess chewing efficiency, given an elastic specimen is chewed for 20 cycles and could be recommended for the evaluation of chewing efficiency in a clinical and research setting.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE:

Chewing is a complex function of the oro-facial structures and the central nervous system. The application of the proposed assessments of the chewing function in geriatrics or special care dentistry could help visualising oro-functional or dental comorbidities in dysphagic patients or those suffering from protein-energy malnutrition.

KEYWORDS:

Chewing gum; Edentulous mouth; Mastication; Symptom assessment

PMID:
26111925
DOI:
10.1016/j.jdent.2015.06.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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