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Epigenomics. 2015;7(4):669-80. doi: 10.2217/epi.15.20.

The role of butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor in diabetes mellitus: experimental evidence for therapeutic intervention.

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Facility for Risk Assessment & Intervention Studies, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab 60 062, India.


The contribution of epigenetic mechanisms in diabetes mellitus (DM), β-cell reprogramming and its complications is an emerging concept. Recent evidence suggests that there is a link between DM and histone deacetylases (HDACs), because HDAC inhibitors promote β-cell differentiation, proliferation, function and improve insulin resistance. Moreover, gut microbes and diet-derived products can alter the host epigenome. Furthermore, butyrate and butyrate-producing microbes are decreased in DM. Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid produced from the fermentation of dietary fibers by microbiota and has been proven as an HDAC inhibitor. The present review provides a pragmatic interpretation of chromatin-dependent and independent complex signaling/mechanisms of butyrate for the treatment of Type 1 and Type 2 DM, with an emphasis on the promising strategies for its drugability and therapeutic implication.


HDAC inhibitors; butyrate; diabetes; epigenetics; histone deacetylase; insulin signaling; β-cell

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