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Open Forum Infect Dis. 2015 May 12;2(2):ofv070. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofv070. eCollection 2015 Apr.

Prevalence, Incidence, and Clearance of Anogenital Warts in Kenyan Men Reporting High-Risk Sexual Behavior, Including Men Who Have Sex With Men.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine.
2
Centre for Geographic Medicine Research - Coast , Kenya Medical Research Institute , Kilifi.
3
Departments of Epidemiology, Laboratory Medicine, and Medicine ; Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division , Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center , Seattle, Washington.
4
Centre for Geographic Medicine Research - Coast , Kenya Medical Research Institute , Kilifi ; Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine , University of Oxford , Headington , United Kingdom.
5
Departments of Medicine, Epidemiology, and Global Health , University of Washington , Seattle ; Centre for Geographic Medicine Research - Coast , Kenya Medical Research Institute , Kilifi.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

 Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes a spectrum of disease, ranging from warts to cancer. Prevalence, incidence, and factors associated with anogenital warts in East African men are unknown.

METHODS:

 Kenyan men reporting high-risk sexual behavior were inspected for anogenital warts at enrollment and follow-up visits. Logistic regression was performed to identify associations with anogenital warts at baseline. Cox regression was performed to analyze predictors of incident anogenital warts, and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate clearance.

RESULTS:

 Baseline anogenital wart prevalence in 1137 men was 2.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0%-4.0%) overall, 2.0% in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected men, and 9.4% in HIV-1-infected men (adjusted odds ratio, 5.43; 95% CI, 2.03-11.29). Over a median of 1.4 years, anogenital wart incidence among 1104 men was 5.3 (95% CI, 4.3-6.5) per 100 person-years. Having HIV-1 infection at baseline (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.66; 95% CI, 1.01-2.72) or a genital syndrome during follow-up (aHR, 4.78; 95% CI, 3.03-7.56) was associated with increased wart incidence. Wart clearance was lower in HIV-1-infected men (log-rank P<.001).

CONCLUSIONS:

 Anogenital wart prevalence and incidence were increased in HIV-1-infected men, and anogenital warts co-occurred with other genital syndromes. Quadrivalent HPV vaccination should be recommended for young men in settings with high HIV-1 prevalence.

KEYWORDS:

HIV-1; HPV; Kenya; MSM; condylomata acuminata; genital warts; incidence; men

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