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Interdiscip Toxicol. 2014 Jun;7(2):103-10. doi: 10.2478/intox-2014-0014. Epub 2014 Nov 15.

Antidotal activity of Averrhoa carambola (Star fruit) on fluoride induced toxicity in rats.

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Centre for Interdisciplinary Studies in Science and Technology, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India.
Laboratory for Animal Sciences, Department of Biosciences, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India.


Consumption of fluoride leads to several physiological disturbances in carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant metabolisms. Averrhoa carambola L. fruit (Star fruit) is a commonly consumed fruit in tropical countries and is an ingredient in folklore medicines. As the fruits have high polyphenolic and antioxidant contents, the present study was undertaken to investigate the potential of star fruit as a dietary supplement in attenuating the fluoride induced hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress in laboratory rats. A four-week exposure to fluoride caused sustained hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress and, when the diet was supplemented with star fruit powder, carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant profiles were restored significantly. It is surmised that the antihyperglycemic, antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant activities of star fruit in fluoride exposed rats could be due to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, saponins, phytosterols, ascorbic acid and fibers in the fruit, which are all well known regulators of carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant metabolisms. These findings suggest that star fruit can be used as a dietary supplement in fluoride endemic regions to contain fluoride induced hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress.


carbohydrate metabolism; fluoride; lipid metabolism; oxidative stress; star fruit

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