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Pest Manag Sci. 2015 Nov;71(11):1486-96. doi: 10.1002/ps.4067. Epub 2015 Aug 3.

Environmental behavior and analysis of agricultural sulfur.

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Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.
Department of Chemistry, Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA.
Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Nevada, Reno, NV, USA.


Sulfur has been widely used for centuries as a staple for pest and disease management in agriculture. Presently, it is the largest-volume pesticide in use worldwide. This review describes the sources and recovery methods for sulfur, its allotropic forms and properties and its agricultural uses, including development and potential advantages of nanosulfur as a fungicide. Chemical and microbial reactivity, interactions in soil and water and analytical methods for determination in environmental samples and foodstuffs, including inexpensive analytical methods for sulfur residues in wine, beer and other food/beverage substrates, will be reviewed. The toxicology of sulfur towards humans and agriculturally important fungi is included, with some restrictions on use to promote safety. The review concludes with areas for which more research is warranted.


agricultural pesticide; environmental analysis; environmental behavior; nanosulfur; sulfur

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