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Chem Biol Drug Des. 2015 Dec;86(6):1451-7. doi: 10.1111/cbdd.12612. Epub 2015 Aug 7.

Synthesis, Characterization, and Anticancer Activity of Novel Lipophilic Emodin Cationic Derivatives.

Author information

1
College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350108, China.
2
Research Institute of Photocatalysis, State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350002, China.
3
Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98105, USA.

Abstract

Seventeen novel emodin derivatives were synthesized, and the structures were confirmed by IR, H NMR, MS, and elemental analysis. The cytotoxic activity of the derivatives was evaluated against A375, BGC-823, HepG2, and HELF cells by MTT assay. Compound 9a with highest potency and low toxicity was selected to further investigate its detailed molecular mechanism. The lead compound 9a induced a loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (▵Ψm), an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. In addition, the confocal study showed that emodin derivative 9a (containing asymmetric hydrocarbon tails) was mainly localized in mitochondria, demonstrating a key role of the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway in cancer cells. Taken together, the results demonstrate that embodin derivative 9a preferentially regulates the ROS-mediated apoptosis in A375 cells through the induction of cytochrome c expression and activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins.

KEYWORDS:

apoptosis; emodin derivative; reactive oxygen species; synthesis

PMID:
26108260
DOI:
10.1111/cbdd.12612
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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