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Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila). 2013 Mar-Apr;2(2):79-87. doi: 10.1097/APO.0b013e31828372c2.

Burden of Ocular Surface Disease in Patients With Glaucoma From Australia.

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From the *Vision Eye Institute, Chatswood, and †Central Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; ‡Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; §Alcon Pte Ltd, Singapore; ¶OPTUMInsight, Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Burlington, Ontario, Canada; and ∥OPTUMInsight, Lilyfield, New South Wales, Australia.



In the Australian general population, the economic burden of ocular surface disease (OSD) severity and other dry eye-related diagnosis have been conducted; however, the glaucoma population has not been evaluated. We assessed the current OSD economic burden in Australian glaucoma patients.


A cross-sectional, case-comparison study that quantified OSD signs and symptoms was conducted.


Patients with and without glaucoma from an Australian eye hospital participated. Patient-/physician-reported OSD assessment and literature-based cost-of-burden estimates were used to estimate burden of illness from the health care system (direct costs) and societal (indirect costs) perspectives. Ocular surface disease prevalence and costs were estimated.


Significant OSD, defined as the presence of 2 or more signs plus 1 or more symptoms reported "often" or "always," was experienced by 39% of patients with glaucoma and 18% of a control group (P < 0.001); both populations had similar prevalence of mild OSD. Significant OSD cost estimates were Australian dollars (AU$) 1061.25 (direct costs) and AU$14078.40 (indirect costs); average (direct and indirect) was AU$6185.79 per patient per year. Based on 39% prevalence rate for significant OSD, estimated total cost to Australian society was AU$330.5 million per annum.


The use of standard OSD definition across research would allow for comparisons between studies and for improved OSD prevalence estimates. In Australia, 39% of patients with glaucoma were found to have significant (moderate/severe) OSD, and the associated economic burden was AU$330.5 million per annum. Additional research evaluating quality of life and assessing actual direct/indirect OSD costs in the Australian population is warranted.

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