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J Med Food. 2015 Sep;18(9):960-71. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2014.3369. Epub 2015 Jun 24.

The Edible Marine Alga Gracilariopsis chorda Alleviates Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons.

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1 Department of Biotechnology, Pukyong National University , Busan, Korea.
2 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bangladesh Agricultural University , Mymensingh, Bangladesh .
3 Department of Anatomy, Dongguk University College of Medicine , Gyeongbuk, Korea.
4 RIS Center, IACF, Silla University , Busan, Korea.
5 Department of Biological Science, Silla University , Busan, Korea.


Age-related neurological disorders are of growing concern among the elderly, and natural products with neuroprotective properties have been attracting increasing attention as candidates for the prevention or treatment of neurological disorders induced by oxidative stress. In an effort to explore natural resources, we collected some common marine seaweed from the Korean peninsula and Indonesia and screened them for neuroprotective activity against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced oxidative stress. Of the 23 seaweeds examined, the ethanol extract of Gracilariopsis chorda (GCE) provided maximum neuroprotection at an optimum concentration of 15 μg/mL, followed by Undaria pinnatifida. GCE increased cell viability after H/R, decreased the formation of reactive oxygen species (measured by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate [DCF-DA] staining), and inhibited the double-stranded DNA breaks (measured by H2AX immunocytochemistry), apoptosis (measured by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining), internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (measured by DNA laddering), and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (measured by JC-1 staining). Using reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, we quantitated the arachidonic acid (AA) in GCE, which provides neuroprotection against H/R-induced oxidative stress. This neuroprotective effect of AA was comparable to that of GCE. These findings suggest that the neuroprotective effect of GCE against H/R-induced neuronal death is due, at least in part, to the AA content that suppresses neuronal apoptosis.


Gracilariopsis chorda; apoptosis; arachidonic acid; hippocampal neurons; hypoxia/reoxygenation; marine macroalgae; neuroprotection

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