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Pharmaceutics. 2015 Jun 19;7(2):74-89. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics7020074.

Endocytosis of Nanomedicines: The Case of Glycopeptide Engineered PLGA Nanoparticles.

Author information

1
Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena 41124, Italy. antonietta.vilella@unimore.it.
2
Nanomedicine Group, Te.Far.T.I. Center, Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena 41124, Italy. barbara.ruozi@unimore.it.
3
Nanomedicine Group, Te.Far.T.I. Center, Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena 41124, Italy. daniela.belletti@unimore.it.
4
Nanomedicine Group, Te.Far.T.I. Center, Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena 41124, Italy. francesca.pederzoli@gmail.com.
5
Nanomedicine Group, Te.Far.T.I. Center, Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena 41124, Italy. marianna.galliani@gmail.com.
6
Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena 41124, Italy. vsvalesuzz@gmail.com.
7
Nanomedicine Group, Te.Far.T.I. Center, Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena 41124, Italy. forni.flavio@unimore.it.
8
Nanomedicine Group, Te.Far.T.I. Center, Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena 41124, Italy. zoli.michele@unimore.it.
9
Nanomedicine Group, Te.Far.T.I. Center, Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena 41124, Italy. vandelli.mariaangela@unimore.it.
10
Nanomedicine Group, Te.Far.T.I. Center, Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena 41124, Italy. gtosi@unimore.it.

Abstract

The success of nanomedicine as a new strategy for drug delivery and targeting prompted the interest in developing approaches toward basic and clinical neuroscience. Despite enormous advances on brain research, central nervous system (CNS) disorders remain the world's leading cause of disability, in part due to the inability of the majority of drugs to reach the brain parenchyma. Many attempts to use nanomedicines as CNS drug delivery systems (DDS) were made; among the various non-invasive approaches, nanoparticulate carriers and, particularly, polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) seem to be the most interesting strategies. In particular, the ability of poly-lactide-co-glycolide NPs (PLGA-NPs) specifically engineered with a glycopeptide (g7), conferring to NPs' ability to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) in rodents at a concentration of up to 10% of the injected dose, was demonstrated in previous studies using different routes of administrations. Most of the evidence on NP uptake mechanisms reported in the literature about intracellular pathways and processes of cell entry is based on in vitro studies. Therefore, beside the particular attention devoted to increasing the knowledge of the rate of in vivo BBB crossing of nanocarriers, the subsequent exocytosis in the brain compartments, their fate and trafficking in the brain surely represent major topics in this field.

KEYWORDS:

blood brain barrier; cellular uptake; endocytosis; nanomedicine; neuron

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