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J Autism Dev Disord. 2015 Nov;45(11):3537-49. doi: 10.1007/s10803-015-2501-y.

Female Autism Phenotypes Investigated at Different Levels of Language and Developmental Abilities.

Author information

1
Division of Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Hasbro Children's/Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.
2
Lurie Center for Autism, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Lexington, MA, USA.
3
Laboratory of Computer Science, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
4
Division of Biology and Medicine, Department of Community Health/Epidemiology, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.
5
Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA.
6
Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University Medical School, Providence, RI, USA.
7
Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University Medical School, Providence, RI, USA. Eric_Morrow@Brown.edu.
8
Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology and Biochemistry and Institute for Brain Science, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA. Eric_Morrow@Brown.edu.
9
Developmental Disorders Genetics Research Program, Emma Pendleton Bradley Hospital, Providence, RI, USA. Eric_Morrow@Brown.edu.

Abstract

This study investigated the differences in clinical symptoms between females and males with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) across three verbal ability groups (nonverbal, phrase and fluent speech), based on which Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule module was administered to 5723 individuals in four research datasets. In the Simons Simplex Collection and Autism Treatment Network, females with ASD and phrase or fluent speech had lower cognitive, adaptive, and social abilities than males. In the Autism Genetics Resource Exchange and the Autism Consortium, females with phrase or fluent speech had similar or better adaptive and social abilities than males. Females who were nonverbal had similar cognitive, adaptive, and social abilities as males. Population-based longitudinal studies of verbally fluent females with ASD are needed.

KEYWORDS:

Autism spectrum disorder; Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder; Sex differences

PMID:
26100851
PMCID:
PMC4609595
DOI:
10.1007/s10803-015-2501-y
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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