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Cell Mol Life Sci. 2015 Oct;72(20):3853-69. doi: 10.1007/s00018-015-1971-6. Epub 2015 Jun 23.

Beyond vascular inflammation--recent advances in understanding atherosclerosis.

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Division of Inflammation Biology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, 9420 Athena Circle Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92037, USA.
Atherogenesis Research Group, Cardiology and Angiology I, Heart Center, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
Division of Inflammation Biology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, 9420 Athena Circle Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92037, USA.


Atherosclerosis is the most life-threatening pathology worldwide. Its major clinical complications, stroke, myocardial infarction, and heart failure, are on the rise in many regions of the world--despite considerable progress in understanding cause, progression, and consequences of atherosclerosis. Originally perceived as a lipid-storage disease of the arterial wall (Die cellularpathologie in ihrer begründung auf physiologische und pathologische gewebelehre. August Hirschwald Verlag Berlin, [1871]), atherosclerosis was recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease in 1986 (New Engl J Med 314:488-500, 1986). The presence of lymphocytes in atherosclerotic lesions suggested autoimmune processes in the vessel wall (Clin Exp Immunol 64:261-268, 1986). Since the advent of suitable mouse models of atherosclerosis (Science 258:468-471, 1992; Cell 71:343-353, 1992; J Clin Invest 92:883-893, 1993) and the development of flow cytometry to define the cellular infiltrate in atherosclerotic lesions (J Exp Med 203:1273-1282, 2006), the origin, lineage, phenotype, and function of distinct inflammatory cells that trigger or inhibit the inflammatory response in the atherosclerotic plaque have been studied. Multiphoton microscopy recently enabled direct visualization of antigen-specific interactions between T cells and antigen-presenting cells in the vessel wall (J Clin Invest 122:3114-3126, 2012). Vascular immunology is now emerging as a new field, providing evidence for protective as well as damaging autoimmune responses (Int Immunol 25:615-622, 2013). Manipulating inflammation and autoimmunity both hold promise for new therapeutic strategies in cardiovascular disease. Ongoing work (J Clin Invest 123:27-36, 2013; Front Immunol 2013; Semin Immunol 31:95-101, 2009) suggests that it may be possible to develop antigen-specific immunomodulatory prevention and therapy-a vaccine against atherosclerosis.


Atherosclerosis; Autoimmunity; Macrophage; Monocyte; T cell; Vaccine

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