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Nat Neurosci. 2015 Aug;18(8):1109-15. doi: 10.1038/nn.4049. Epub 2015 Jun 22.

Subtype-specific plasticity of inhibitory circuits in motor cortex during motor learning.

Author information

1
1] Neurobiology Section, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA. [2] Center for Neural Circuits and Behavior, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA. [3] Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.
2
1] Neurobiology Section, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA. [2] Center for Neural Circuits and Behavior, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA. [3] Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA. [4] Japan Science and Technology Agency, PRESTO, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.

Abstract

Motor skill learning induces long-lasting reorganization of dendritic spines, principal sites of excitatory synapses, in the motor cortex. However, mechanisms that regulate these excitatory synaptic changes remain poorly understood. Here, using in vivo two-photon imaging in awake mice, we found that learning-induced spine reorganization of layer (L) 2/3 excitatory neurons occurs in the distal branches of their apical dendrites in L1 but not in the perisomatic dendrites. This compartment-specific spine reorganization coincided with subtype-specific plasticity of local inhibitory circuits. Somatostatin-expressing inhibitory neurons (SOM-INs), which mainly inhibit distal dendrites of excitatory neurons, showed a decrease in axonal boutons immediately after the training began, whereas parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons (PV-INs), which mainly inhibit perisomatic regions of excitatory neurons, exhibited a gradual increase in axonal boutons during training. Optogenetic enhancement and suppression of SOM-IN activity during training destabilized and hyperstabilized spines, respectively, and both manipulations impaired the learning of stereotyped movements. Our results identify SOM inhibition of distal dendrites as a key regulator of learning-related changes in excitatory synapses and the acquisition of motor skills.

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PMID:
26098758
PMCID:
PMC4519436
DOI:
10.1038/nn.4049
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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