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Asian Spine J. 2015 Jun;9(3):416-22. doi: 10.4184/asj.2015.9.3.416. Epub 2015 Jun 8.

Evaluating Kyphosis and Lordosis in Students by Using a Flexible Ruler and Their Relationship with Severity and Frequency of Thoracic and Lumbar Pain.

Author information

1
Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran.
2
Department of Orthotics and Prosthetics, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran.
3
Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran.

Abstract

STUDY DESIGN:

A cross-sectional, descriptive study.

PURPOSE:

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between kyphosis and lordosis measured by using a flexible ruler and musculoskeletal pain in students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences.

OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE:

The spine supports the body during different activities by maintaining appropriate body alignment and posture. Normal alignment of the spine depends on its structural, muscular, bony, and articular performance.

METHODS:

Two hundred forty-one students participated in this study. A single examiner evaluated the angles of lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis by using a flexible ruler. To determine the severity and frequency of pain in low-back and inter-scapular regions, a tailor-made questionnaire with visual analog scale was used. Finally, using the Kendall correlation coefficient, the data were statistically analyzed.

RESULTS:

The mean value of lumbar lordosis was 34.46°±12.61° in female students and 22.46°±9.9° in male students. The mean value of lumbar lordosis significantly differed between female and male students (p<0.001). However, there was no difference in the level of the thoracic curve (p=0.288). Relationship between kyphosis measured by using a flexible ruler and inter-scapular pain in male and female students was not significant (p=0.946). However, the relationship between lumbar lordosis and low back pain was statistically significant (p=0.006). Also, no significant relationship was observed between abnormal kyphosis and frequency of inter-scapular pain, and between lumbar lordosis and low back pain.

CONCLUSIONS:

Lumbar lordosis contributes to low back pain. The causes of musculoskeletal pain could be muscle imbalance and muscle and ligament strain.

KEYWORDS:

Kyphosis; Lordosis; Pain

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