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Front Neurol. 2015 Jun 5;6:112. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2015.00112. eCollection 2015.

Social and Behavioral Determinants of Perceived Insufficient Sleep.

Author information

1
Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania , Philadelphia, PA , USA ; Behavioral Sleep Medicine Program, Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania , Philadelphia, PA , USA.
2
Quantitative Psychology Program, Department of Psychology, University of Southern California , Columbia, SC , USA.
3
Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania , Philadelphia, PA , USA ; Division of Sleep Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania , Philadelphia, PA , USA ; School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania , Philadelphia, PA , USA.
4
Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania , Philadelphia, PA , USA ; Division of Sleep Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania , Philadelphia, PA , USA.
5
Department of Medicine, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center , Brooklyn, NY , USA.
6
Division of Internal Medicine, Center for Healthful Behavior Change, New York University Medical Center , New York, NY , USA.
7
Department of Medicine, Reading Hospital and Medical Center , Reading, PA , USA.

Abstract

Insufficient sleep is associated with cardiometabolic disease and poor health. However, few studies have assessed its determinants in a nationally representative sample. Data from the 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system were used (N = 323,047 adults). Insufficient sleep was assessed as insufficient rest/sleep over 30 days. This was evaluated relative to sociodemographics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, region), socioeconomics (education, income, employment, insurance), health behaviors (diet, exercise, smoking, alcohol), and health/functioning (emotional support, BMI, mental/physical health). Overall, insufficient sleep was associated with being female, White or Black/African-American, unemployed, without health insurance, and not married; decreased age, income, education, physical activity; worse diet and overall health; and increased household size, alcohol, and smoking. These factors should be considered as risk factors for insufficient sleep.

KEYWORDS:

behavioral; cardiometabolic disease; insufficient sleep; poor health; sleep duration; social determinants

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