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J Sex Med. 2015 Jul;12(7):1626-34. doi: 10.1111/jsm.12914. Epub 2015 Jun 12.

Aesthetic and Functional Outcomes of Neovaginoplasty Using Penile Skin in Male-to-Female Transsexuals.

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Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Centre of Expertise on Gender Dysphoria, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Department of Medical Psychology, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.



In the treatment of transgender women, the surgical construction of a neo-vagina, or vaginoplasty, is the final stage in the transition to the desired gender. Surgeons aim to create a neovagina that is in function and appearance as close to a biological vagina as possible. However, to date, it is insufficiently clear whether transgender women are satisfied with the functional and cosmetic outcomes of vaginoplasty.


Our aim was to assess if penile skin inversion neovaginoplasty performed in transgender women meet the objectives strived for, by determining functional and aesthetic outcomes, as well as the physical and sexual well-being and satisfaction.


We performed a retrospective survey study on 49 transgender women who underwent vaginoplasty using the penile skin inversion technique. Participants were asked to fill out the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), a combination of the Amsterdam Hyperactive Pelvic Floor Scale--Women (AHPFS-W) and the Female Genital Self-Imaging Scale, and a short questionnaire for self-evaluation of vaginoplasty. Photographs of the genitalia were taken for objective assessment by an independent panel.


Primary outcomes were the functional and aesthetic evaluation as perceived by the trangender women themselves. Secondary outcomes were the aesthetic evaluation of the vaginoplasty by an independent panel.


Functionality and appearance were both given an average score of 8 out of 10. Despite this high score, 56% is sexually dysfunctional according to the FSFI, mainly because of not being sexually active, or due to problems with lubrication and discomfort. In 75%, the result met the expectation and 70% thinks their genital is feminine enough.


This study demonstrates that, despite relatively low FSFI scores, this group of transgender women is very satisfied with both the functional and aesthetic results of neovaginoplasty using penile skin inversion.


Male-to-Female Transgender; Patient-Reported Outcome; Penile Inversion; Sexual Function; Surgery; Vaginoplasty

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