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Mol Cells. 2015 Jul;38(7):597-603. doi: 10.14348/molcells.2015.0152. Epub 2015 Jun 22.

New Insights into the Protein Turnover Regulation in Ethylene Biosynthesis.

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Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.


Biosynthesis of the phytohormone ethylene is under tight regulation to satisfy the need for appropriate levels of ethylene in plants in response to exogenous and endogenous stimuli. The enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of ethylene biosynthesis, plays a central role to regulate ethylene production through changes in ACS gene expression levels and the activity of the enzyme. Together with molecular genetic studies suggesting the roles of post-translational modification of the ACS, newly emerging evidence strongly suggests that the regulation of ACS protein stability is an alternative mechanism that controls ethylene production, in addition to the transcriptional regulation of ACS genes. In this review, recent new insight into the regulation of ACS protein turnover is highlighted, with a special focus on the roles of phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and novel components that regulate the turnover of ACS proteins. The prospect of cross-talk between ethylene biosynthesis and other signaling pathways to control turnover of the ACS protein is also considered.


14-3-3; ACS; ethylene; phosphorylation; protein turnover

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