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Am J Reprod Immunol. 2015 Oct;74(4):313-22. doi: 10.1111/aji.12411. Epub 2015 Jun 21.

Levels of Genital Tract Defensins and Cytokines Differ between HIV-Uninfected US and African Women.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.
2
Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
3
Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Magee-Womens Research Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
4
Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
5
Department of Medicine (Clinical Pharmacology), Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
6
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.

Abstract

PROBLEM:

To explore the impact of race and geographic region on biomarkers of HIV risk and vaginal health, differences in soluble immune mediators were measured in US versus African and US white versus US black women at enrollment into a phase 2 microbicide trial.

METHODS:

Levels of soluble mucosal immune mediators and inhibitory activity against E. coli, which may serve as biomarkers of risk for HIV and other genital tract infections, were quantified in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) collected from HIV-uninfected women in the United States (n = 73) and Africa (n = 73). Differences between groups were analyzed with multivariable logistic regression models for dichotomous variables and linear regression models for continuous variables.

RESULTS:

Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, lactoferrin, human beta defensins, interleukin (IL)-8, and interferon-gamma-induced protein-10 were significantly higher in US compared to African women in multivariable analysis, but only IL-1β was significantly different between US white and black women. E. coli inhibitory activity did not differ among groups in adjusted analyses.

CONCLUSION:

Differences in soluble mucosal immunity between US and African women may play an important role in women's risk for HIV and other genital tract infections and response to prevention strategies including vaginal microbicides and should be considered in future studies.

KEYWORDS:

Female genital tract; HIV; mucosal immunity; racial disparities; sexually transmitted infections

PMID:
26094732
PMCID:
PMC4573314
DOI:
10.1111/aji.12411
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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