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Clin Ophthalmol. 2015 Jun 8;9:985-94. doi: 10.2147/OPTH.S59828. eCollection 2015.

Risk definition and management strategies in retinoblastoma: current perspectives.

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Eye Research Center, Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Tehran Province, Islamic Republic of Iran.


This manuscript focuses on high-risk factors of metastatic disease in retinoblastoma and evaluation of the current treatments of retinoblastoma. Presence of histopathologic high-risk factors is associated with a higher risk of local recurrence and systemic metastasis. Currently, globe-sparing therapies, including systemic chemotherapy, intra-arterial chemoreduction, intravitreal chemotherapy, focal consolidation, and combination therapies, are being used and investigated actively. Major advances are being made in the diagnosis and management of retinoblastoma that will lead to improved morbidity and mortality rates in patients with retinoblastoma. By saving the globes, fronting with some high-risk factors for metastasis would be inevitable. International multi-institutional prospective studies could resolve current uncertainties regarding the main tumor treatment regimens for each patient and indications for chemoprophylaxis for high-risk-factor-bearing retinoblastoma cases.


intra-arterial chemotherapy; retinoblastoma; systemic chemotherapy

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