Send to

Choose Destination
Br J Sports Med. 2016 Jan;50(1):3-7. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2015-094621. Epub 2015 Jun 18.

Citius, Altius, Fortius: beneficial effects of resistance training for young athletes: Narrative review.

Author information

Department of Health and Exercise Science, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, New Jersey, USA.
School of Sport, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, Wales, UK.
Department of Paediatrics and Family Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA Division of Sports Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USA.
Division of Sports Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Centre, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA Departments of Pediatrics and Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA The Micheli Center for Sports Injury Prevention, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA The Sports Health and Performance Institute, OSU Sports Medicine, Ohio State University Medical Centre, Columbus, Ohio, USA.


The motto of the Olympic Games is Citius, Altius, Fortius which is Latin for 'Faster, Higher, Stronger'. It is a clarion call to all competitors, including the youngest, to engage in training strategies that prepare athletes to be the best in the world. Existing research indicates that various forms of resistance training can elicit performance improvements in young athletes. Stronger young athletes will be better prepared to learn complex movements, master sport tactics, and sustain the demands of training and competition. An integrative training programme grounded in resistance training and motor skill development can optimise a young athlete's potential to maximise their athletic and sporting performance, while reducing the risk of a sports-related injury. Resistance training may be especially important for modern-day young athletes who are more likely to specialise in one sport at an early age at the expense of enhancing general physical fitness and learning diversified sport skills. Structured interventions that include qualified instruction; targeted movement practice; and strength and conditioning activities that are developmentally appropriate, progressive and technique driven are needed to attain a level of athleticism that is consistent with the Olympic motto.


Athlete; Children; Sports & exercise medicine; Weight lifting; Young

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire
Loading ...
Support Center