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Mol Biol Evol. 2015 Oct;32(10):2515-33. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msv139. Epub 2015 Jun 16.

Mitogenomic Meta-Analysis Identifies Two Phases of Migration in the History of Eastern Eurasian Sheep.

Author information

1
CAS Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing, China.
2
CAS Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing, China University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS), Beijing, China.
3
Animal Biotechnology Research Institute, Xinjiang Academy of Animal Science, Urumqi, China.
4
CAAS-ILRI Joint Laboratory on Livestock and Forage Genetic Resources, Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Beijing, China.
5
CAS Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing, China College of Life Sciences, Shangqiu Normal University, Shangqiu, China.
6
Institute of Sheep and Goat Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.
7
College of Animal Science, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, China.
8
College of Animal Science and Technology, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, China.
9
Shandong Binzhou Academy of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Binzhou, China.
10
College of Animal Science and Technology, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, China.
11
Grass-Feeding Livestock Engineering Technology Research Center, Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Yinchuan, China.
12
CAAS-ILRI Joint Laboratory on Livestock and Forage Genetic Resources, Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Beijing, China Animal Breeding Division, National Animal Science Institute, Nepal Agriculture Research Council, Kathmandu, Nepal.
13
Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran-North Branch (ABRII), Rasht, Iran.
14
Department of Animal Technology and Production Science, Bogor Agricultural University, Darmaga Campus, Bogor, Indonesia.
15
Faculty of Life Sciences, Karakoram International University, Gilgit, Baltistan, Pakistan.
16
Green Technology, Natural Resources Institute Finland (LUKE), Jokioinen, Finland.
17
School of Biosciences and Sustainable Places Research Institute, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom.
18
Green Technology, Natural Resources Institute Finland (LUKE), Jokioinen, Finland Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
19
CAAS-ILRI Joint Laboratory on Livestock and Forage Genetic Resources, Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Beijing, China International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Nairobi, Kenya h.jianlin@cgiar.org menghua.li@ioz.ac.cn.
20
CAS Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing, China h.jianlin@cgiar.org menghua.li@ioz.ac.cn.

Abstract

Despite much attention, history of sheep (Ovis aries) evolution, including its dating, demographic trajectory and geographic spread, remains controversial. To address these questions, we generated 45 complete and 875 partial mitogenomic sequences, and performed a meta-analysis of these and published ovine mitochondrial DNA sequences (n = 3,229) across Eurasia. We inferred that O. orientalis and O. musimon share the most recent female ancestor with O. aries at approximately 0.790 Ma (95% CI: 0.637-0.934 Ma) during the Middle Pleistocene, substantially predating the domestication event (∼8-11 ka). By reconstructing historical variations in effective population size, we found evidence of a rapid population increase approximately 20-60 ka, immediately before the Last Glacial Maximum. Analyses of lineage expansions showed two sheep migratory waves at approximately 4.5-6.8 ka (lineages A and B: ∼6.4-6.8 ka; C: ∼4.5 ka) across eastern Eurasia, which could have been influenced by prehistoric West-East commercial trade and deliberate mating of domestic and wild sheep, respectively. A continent-scale examination of lineage diversity and approximate Bayesian computation analyses indicated that the Mongolian Plateau region was a secondary center of dispersal, acting as a "transportation hub" in eastern Eurasia: Sheep from the Middle Eastern domestication center were inferred to have migrated through the Caucasus and Central Asia, and arrived in North and Southwest China (lineages A, B, and C) and the Indian subcontinent (lineages B and C) through this region. Our results provide new insights into sheep domestication, particularly with respect to origins and migrations to and from eastern Eurasia.

KEYWORDS:

Ovis aries; colonization simulation; domestication; gene flow; meta-analysis; mitogenome; wild ancestor

PMID:
26085518
PMCID:
PMC4576706
DOI:
10.1093/molbev/msv139
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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