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J Med Virol. 2015 Dec;87(12):2061-6. doi: 10.1002/jmv.24282. Epub 2015 Jun 16.

Performance of rapid tests for discrimination between HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 infections.

Author information

Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 6, UMRS CR7, INSERM U1135, Persistent Viral Infections, CIMI-Paris, Hôpitaux Universitaires La Pitié Salpêtrière-Charles Foix, Paris, France.
AP-HP, Hôpitaux Universitaires La Pitié Salpêtrière-Charles Foix, Service de Virologie, Paris, France.
Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université René Descartes Paris 5, UFR des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Laboratoire de Microbiologie, Paris, France.
Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire, Centre National de Référence du VIH, Tours, France.
AP-HP, Groupe Hospitalier Universitaire Paris Nord-Val de Seine, Laboratoire de Virologie, Paris, France.
Université de Rouen, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Charles Nicolle and EA2656-GRAM, Laboratoire associé au Centre National de Référence du VIH, Rouen, France.
Université François-Rabelais, INSERM UMR966, Tours, France.


Major differences exist between HIV-1 and HIV-2 in terms of epidemiology, pathogenicity, sensitivity to antiretrovirals. Determining the type of HIV infecting a patient is essential for management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of simple/rapid tests to differentiate between HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 infections. We analyzed 116 samples from patients infected with HIV-1 (n = 61), HIV-2 (n = 47), or HIV-1+HIV-2 (n = 8) at the chronic stage of infection. Each sample was tested with SD Bioline HIV-1/2 3.0, ImmunoFlow HIV1-HIV2, ImmunoFlow HIV1-HIV2 (WB), Genie III HIV-1/HIV-2, ImmunoComb HIV1&2 BiSpot. HIV-1, or HIV-2 single infection was identified with a sensitivity ranging from 90% to 100%. The ability to detect dual infection was less sensitive (12.5-100%). SD Bioline HIV-1/2 3.0, ImmunoFlow HIV1-HIV2, and Genie III were unable to detect HIV-1 group O infection in one, one and two cases, respectively. The specificity of detection of HIV-1, HIV-2, or HIV-1+HIV-2 antibodies differed greatly (36-100%). ImmunoComb BiSpot had the highest sensitivity values (99-100% for HIV-1, 98% for HIV-2, and 75-87.5% for dual infection) and specificity values (94-100% for HIV-1, 100% for HIV-2, and 97-100% for dual infection). In conclusion, this study showed that no single rapid test had a perfect sensitivity/specificity ratio, particularly in the case of the double infections.


HIV-1; HIV-2; differentiation; dual infection; simple rapid test

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