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Eur J Nutr. 2016 Jun;55(4):1359-75. doi: 10.1007/s00394-015-0950-x. Epub 2015 Jun 17.

Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

Author information

1
Biomarker Group, Nutrition and Metabolism Section, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150, cours Albert Thomas, 69372, Lyon Cedex 08, France.
2
Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
3
Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.
4
U1018, Nutrition, Hormones and Women's Health Team, Inserm, Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP), Villejuif, France.
5
UMRS 1018, Paris South University, Villejuif, France.
6
Institut Gustave Roussy, 94805, Villejuif, France.
7
Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.
8
Department of Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbrücke, Nuthetal, Germany.
9
Hellenic Health Foundation, Athens, Greece.
10
Bureau of Epidemiologic Research, Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece.
11
Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Cancer Research and Prevention Institute-ISPO, Florence, Italy.
12
Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.
13
Center for Cancer Prevention (CPO-Piemonte), and Human Genetic Foundation (HuGeF), Turin, Italy.
14
Cancer Registry and Histopathology Unit, "Civic M.P. Arezzo" Hospital, ASP Ragusa, Italy.
15
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
16
Department of Epidemiology, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
17
School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.
18
Department for Determinants of Chronic Diseases (DCD), National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
19
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
20
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
21
Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
22
Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
23
Public Health Directorate, Asturias, Spain.
24
Unit of Nutrition, Environment and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Barcelona, Spain.
25
Escuela Andaluza de Salud Pública, Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs, Granada, Hospitales Universitarios de Granada/Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain.
26
CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.
27
Department of Epidemiology, Murcia Regional Health Council, IMIB-Arrixaca, Murcia, Spain.
28
Navarre Public Health Institute, Pamplona, Spain.
29
Public Health Department of Gipuzkoa, BioDonostia Research Institute, Health Department of Basque Region, San Sebastián, Spain.
30
Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
31
Department of Nutritional Research, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
32
Arcum, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
33
Department of Food Science, Uppsala BioCentre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
34
Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
35
Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
36
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
37
MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK.
38
Biomarker Group, Nutrition and Metabolism Section, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150, cours Albert Thomas, 69372, Lyon Cedex 08, France. scalberta@iarc.fr.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:

Polyphenols are plant secondary metabolites with a large variability in their chemical structure and dietary occurrence that have been associated with some protective effects against several chronic diseases. To date, limited data exist on intake of polyphenols in populations. The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.

METHODS:

Dietary data at baseline were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing.

RESULTS:

Mean total polyphenol intake was the highest in Aarhus-Denmark (1786 mg/day in men and 1626 mg/day in women) and the lowest in Greece (744 mg/day in men and 584 mg/day in women). When dividing the subjects into three regions, the highest intake of total polyphenols was observed in the UK health-conscious group, followed by non-Mediterranean (non-MED) and MED countries. The main polyphenol contributors were phenolic acids (52.5-56.9 %), except in men from MED countries and in the UK health-conscious group where they were flavonoids (49.1-61.7 %). Coffee, tea, and fruits were the most important food sources of total polyphenols. A total of 437 different individual polyphenols were consumed, including 94 consumed at a level >1 mg/day. The most abundant ones were the caffeoylquinic acids and the proanthocyanidin oligomers and polymers.

CONCLUSION:

This study describes the large number of dietary individual polyphenols consumed and the high variability of their intakes between European populations, particularly between MED and non-MED countries.

KEYWORDS:

Dietary intake; EPIC; Food sources; Polyphenols

PMID:
26081647
PMCID:
PMC6284790
DOI:
10.1007/s00394-015-0950-x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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