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Nat Rev Genet. 2015 Jul;16(7):421-33. doi: 10.1038/nrg3965. Epub 2015 Jun 16.

Towards a molecular understanding of microRNA-mediated gene silencing.

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Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Spemannstrasse 35, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany.


MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a conserved class of small non-coding RNAs that assemble with Argonaute proteins into miRNA-induced silencing complexes (miRISCs) to direct post-transcriptional silencing of complementary mRNA targets. Silencing is accomplished through a combination of translational repression and mRNA destabilization, with the latter contributing to most of the steady-state repression in animal cell cultures. Degradation of the mRNA target is initiated by deadenylation, which is followed by decapping and 5'-to-3' exonucleolytic decay. Recent work has enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms of silencing, making it possible to describe in molecular terms a continuum of direct interactions from miRNA target recognition to mRNA deadenylation, decapping and 5'-to-3' degradation. Furthermore, an intricate interplay between translational repression and mRNA degradation is emerging.

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