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J Clin Oncol. 2015 Jul 20;33(21):2376-83. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2014.59.5967. Epub 2015 Jun 15.

Elevated Cancer-Specific Mortality Among HIV-Infected Patients in the United States.

Author information

1
Anna E. Coghill, Meredith S. Shiels, and Eric A. Engels, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD; and Gita Suneja, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT. anna.coghill@nih.gov.
2
Anna E. Coghill, Meredith S. Shiels, and Eric A. Engels, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD; and Gita Suneja, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Despite advances in the treatment of HIV, HIV-infected people remain at increased risk for many cancers, and the number of non-AIDS-defining cancers is increasing with the aging of the HIV-infected population. No prior study has comprehensively evaluated the effect of HIV on cancer-specific mortality.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

We identified cases of 14 common cancers occurring from 1996 to 2010 in six US states participating in a linkage of cancer and HIV/AIDS registries. We used Cox regression to examine the association between patient HIV status and death resulting from the presenting cancer (ascertained from death certificates), adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, year of cancer diagnosis, and cancer stage. We included 1,816,461 patients with cancer, 6,459 (0.36%) of whom were HIV infected.

RESULTS:

Cancer-specific mortality was significantly elevated in HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected patients for many cancers: colorectum (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.49; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.84), pancreas (HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.18), larynx (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.47), lung (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.39), melanoma (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.70), breast (HR, 2.61; 95% CI, 2.06 to 3.31), and prostate (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.41). HIV was not associated with increased cancer-specific mortality for anal cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. After further adjustment for cancer treatment, HIV remained associated with elevated cancer-specific mortality for common non-AIDS-defining cancers: colorectum (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.80), lung (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.44), melanoma (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.14 to 3.27), and breast (HR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.86 to 3.73).

CONCLUSION:

HIV-infected patients with cancer experienced higher cancer-specific mortality than HIV-uninfected patients, independent of cancer stage or receipt of cancer treatment. The elevation in cancer-specific mortality among HIV-infected patients may be attributable to unmeasured stage or treatment differences as well as a direct relationship between immunosuppression and tumor progression.

PMID:
26077242
PMCID:
PMC4500831
DOI:
10.1200/JCO.2014.59.5967
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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