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J Trop Pediatr. 1989 Dec;35(6):295-300. doi: 10.1093/tropej/35.6.295.

Clinical signs and risk factors associated with pneumonia in children admitted to Goroka Hospital, Papua New Guinea.


This study examined the clinical signs and symptoms in 897 children aged under 5 years presenting with pneumonia to Goroka Hospital in the highlands of Papua New Guinea between June 1982 and July 1985. The usefulness of the signs in predicting severity of disease was determined and risk factors for severe disease were identified. While cyanosis and poor feeding were the strongest predictors of death, bronchial breathing, grunting, and nasal flaring also significantly increased the risk of dying. First-born children, children under 1 year of age, females, malnourished children, and children with symptoms for more than 7 days were at increased risk of severe disease and of dying. Fever alone did not increase the risk of dying unless it was present for more than 7 days. These clinical signs of severity and risk factors may be used to improve the efficiency of health education programmes, for both health workers and mothers, aimed at reducing childhood mortality from pneumonia.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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