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Mol Autism. 2015 Jun 13;6:36. doi: 10.1186/s13229-015-0019-y. eCollection 2015.

Sex and gender differences in autism spectrum disorder: summarizing evidence gaps and identifying emerging areas of priority.

Author information

1
Autism Science Foundation, 28 W 39th Street #502, New York, NY 10018 USA ; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, 41B Gordon Road, Piscataway, 08854 New Brunswick, NJ USA.
2
Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Francisco, 401 Parnassus Ave, LangPorter, 94143 San Francisco, CA USA.
3
William Greenleaf Eliot Division of Child Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8134, 63110 St. Louis, MO USA.
4
Autism Speaks, 1 E 33rd St 4th Floor, New York, NY 10016 USA.
5
Initiative for Girls and Women with Autism Spectrum Disorders, Yale Child Study Center, PO Box 207900, 230 South Frontage Road, New Haven, CT 06520-7900 USA.
6
Global and Regional Asperger, Syndrome Partnership, Inc., 419 Lafayette Street, New York, NY 10003 USA.
7
Department of Psychology and Pediatrics, University of Miami, Flipse Building, P.O. Box 249229, Coral Gables, FL 33124-0751 USA.
8
Child Neuroscience Laboratory, Yale Child Study Center, PO Box 207900, 230 South Frontage Road, New Haven, CT 06520-7900 USA.
9
UCSF School of Medicine, Psychiatry, 1550 4th St Bldg 19B, San Francisco, CA 94158 USA.
10
Autism Science Foundation, 28 W 39th Street #502, New York, NY 10018 USA.
11
Pediatrics and Special Education, Vanderbilt Kennedy Center Investigator, PMB 40-230 Appleton Pl., Nashville, TN 37203 USA.
12
The Hospital for Sick Children and Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, 1001 Queen Street West, Toronto, ON M6J 1H4 Canada ; Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, 1001 Queen Street West, Toronto, ON M6J 1H4 Canada.

Abstract

One of the most consistent findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research is a higher rate of ASD diagnosis in males than females. Despite this, remarkably little research has focused on the reasons for this disparity. Better understanding of this sex difference could lead to major advancements in the prevention or treatment of ASD in both males and females. In October of 2014, Autism Speaks and the Autism Science Foundation co-organized a meeting that brought together almost 60 clinicians, researchers, parents, and self-identified autistic individuals. Discussion at the meeting is summarized here with recommendations on directions of future research endeavors.

KEYWORDS:

Autism; Diagnosis; Female; Protection; Research; Symposium

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