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Int J Endocrinol. 2015;2015:234358. doi: 10.1155/2015/234358. Epub 2015 May 5.

High Levels of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate in Children at the Onset of Diabetes.

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Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences of the Mother, Children and Adults, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 41124 Modena, Italy.
Department of Environmental Sciences "G. Sarfatti", University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy.



Impairments of endocrine system may be associated with exposure to perfluorinated compounds that are able to bind nuclear receptors, including the peroxisome proliferator-activating receptors. Aim of this study was to assess perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid concentrations in children and adolescents at the onset of type 1 diabetes compared to healthy controls.


Forty-four children and adolescents were recruited and subdivided into two groups: (A) 25 subjects with type 1 diabetes and (B) 19 healthy controls. Perfluorinated compounds were measured using high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Nonparametric statistical analysis was performed.


Perfluorooctane sulfonate concentrations were significantly higher in patients with type 1 diabetes compared to controls (1.53 ± 1.50 versus 0.55 ± 0.15 ng/mL, resp.; p < 0.001). Multivariate linear regression analysis identified lipid levels as significant predictive factors for perfluorooctane sulfonate levels.


Our data suggests that higher serum levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate may be considered a biomarker of exposure and susceptibility to develop type 1 diabetes.

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