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Trends Genet. 2015 Aug;31(8):426-33. doi: 10.1016/j.tig.2015.05.007. Epub 2015 Jun 11.

A unified architecture of transcriptional regulatory elements.

Author information

1
The Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address: robin@binf.ku.dk.
2
The Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Biotech Research and Innovation Centre (BRIC), University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
3
Baker Institute for Animal Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA; Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. Electronic address: dankoc@gmail.com.

Abstract

Gene expression is precisely controlled in time and space through the integration of signals that act at gene promoters and gene-distal enhancers. Classically, promoters and enhancers are considered separate classes of regulatory elements, often distinguished by histone modifications. However, recent studies have revealed broad similarities between enhancers and promoters, blurring the distinction: active enhancers often initiate transcription, and some gene promoters have the potential to enhance transcriptional output of other promoters. Here, we propose a model in which promoters and enhancers are considered a single class of functional element, with a unified architecture for transcription initiation. The context of interacting regulatory elements and the surrounding sequences determine local transcriptional output as well as the enhancer and promoter activities of individual elements.

KEYWORDS:

core promoter; eRNA; enhancer; promoter; transcriptional regulation

PMID:
26073855
DOI:
10.1016/j.tig.2015.05.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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