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J Agric Food Chem. 2015 Jul 8;63(26):6051-8. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.5b01801. Epub 2015 Jun 24.

Ginger and Zingerone Ameliorate Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Systemic Inflammation in Mice, Assessed by Nuclear Factor-κB Bioluminescent Imaging.

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†Department of Microbiology, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan.
‡School of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan.
§Graduate Institute of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan.
∥Graduate Institute of Cancer Biology, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan.
⊥Graduate Institute of Acupuncture Science, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan.
∇Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan.


Ginger is a commonly used spice in cooking. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of ginger and its component zingerone in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute systemic inflammation in mice via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) bioluminescent imaging. Ginger and zingerone significantly suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activities in cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the maximal inhibition (84.5% ± 3.5% and 96.2% ± 0.6%) was observed at 100 μg/mL ginger and zingerone, respectively. Moreover, dietary ginger and zingerone significantly reduced LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine production in sera by 62.9% ± 18.2% and 81.3% ± 6.2%, respectively, and NF-κB bioluminescent signals in whole body by 26.9% ± 14.3% and 38.5% ± 6.2%, respectively. In addition, ginger and zingerone suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB-driven luminescent intensities in most organs, and the maximal inhibition by ginger and zingerone was observed in small intestine. Immunohistochemical staining further showed that ginger and zingerone decreased interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-, CD11b-, and p65-positive areas in jejunum. In conclusion, our findings suggested that ginger and zingerone were likely to be broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory agents in most organs that suppressed the activation of NF-κB, the production of IL-1β, and the infiltration of inflammatory cells in mice.


bioluminescent imaging; ginger; inflammation; nuclear factor-κB; zingerone

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