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Prog Lipid Res. 2015 Jul;59:106-25. doi: 10.1016/j.plipres.2015.05.002. Epub 2015 Jun 11.

Strategies, models and biomarkers in experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease research.

Author information

1
Department of In Vitro Toxicology and Dermato-Cosmetology, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address: joost.willebrords@vub.ac.be.
2
Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva, 87, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: isabelveloso@gmail.com.
3
Department of In Vitro Toxicology and Dermato-Cosmetology, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address: michael.mc.maes@vub.ac.be.
4
Department of In Vitro Toxicology and Dermato-Cosmetology, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address: sara.crespo.yanguas@vub.ac.be.
5
Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Algemeen Stedelijk Ziekenhuis Campus Aalst, Merestraat 80, 9300 Aalst, Belgium. Electronic address: isabelle.colle@asz.be.
6
Department of Abdominal Surgery and Hepato-Pancreatico-Biliary Surgery, Algemeen Stedelijk Ziekenhuis Campus Aalst, Merestraat 80, 9300 Aalst, Belgium. Electronic address: bert.vandenbossche@asz.be.
7
Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva, 87, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: terezacs@usp.br.
8
Department of Gastroenterology, Clinical Division, Hepatology Branch, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 455, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: cpm@usp.br.
9
Department of Gastroenterology, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 455, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: wellingtonandraus@gmail.com.
10
Laboratory of Medical Investigation, Department of Pathology, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 455, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: venancio@uol.com.br.
11
Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva, 87, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: bcogliati@gmail.com.
12
Department of In Vitro Toxicology and Dermato-Cosmetology, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address: mvinken@vub.ac.be.

Abstract

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease encompasses a spectrum of liver diseases, including simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is currently the most dominant chronic liver disease in Western countries due to the fact that hepatic steatosis is associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome and drug-induced injury. A variety of chemicals, mainly drugs, and diets is known to cause hepatic steatosis in humans and rodents. Experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease models rely on the application of a diet or the administration of drugs to laboratory animals or the exposure of hepatic cell lines to these drugs. More recently, genetically modified rodents or zebrafish have been introduced as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease models. Considerable interest now lies in the discovery and development of novel non-invasive biomarkers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, with specific focus on hepatic steatosis. Experimental diagnostic biomarkers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, such as (epi)genetic parameters and '-omics'-based read-outs are still in their infancy, but show great promise. In this paper, the array of tools and models for the study of liver steatosis is discussed. Furthermore, the current state-of-art regarding experimental biomarkers such as epigenetic, genetic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabonomic biomarkers will be reviewed.

KEYWORDS:

Biomarkers; Drugs; Models; Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Steatosis

PMID:
26073454
PMCID:
PMC4596006
DOI:
10.1016/j.plipres.2015.05.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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