Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Resuscitation. 2015 Sep;94:106-13. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2015.06.004. Epub 2015 Jun 12.

Quality of CPR: An important effect modifier in cardiac arrest clinical outcomes and intervention effectiveness trials.

Author information

1
University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, United States. Electronic address: yanno001@umn.edu.
2
Medical College of Wisconsin, 9200 West Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, United States.
3
University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States.
4
University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, United States.
5
University of Oklahoma School of Community Medicine, 1145 S. Utica Ave, 6th Floor, Tulsa, OK 74104, United States.
6
Hennepin County Medical Center, 701 Park Avenue, Minneapolis, MN 55415, United States.
7
University of Pennsylvania and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States.
8
Johns Hopkins Hospital, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, United States.
9
University of Virginia, P.O. Box 800699, Charlottesville, VA 22908, United States.
10
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390, United States.
11
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390-8579, United States.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To determine if the quality of CPR had a significant interaction with the primary study intervention in the NIH PRIMED trial.

DESIGN:

The public access database from the NIH PRIMED trial was accessed to determine if there was an interaction between quality of CPR performance, intervention, and outcome (survival to hospital discharge with modified Rankin Score (mRS) ≤ 3).

SETTING:

Multi-centered prehospital care systems across North America.

PATIENTS:

Of 8719 adult patients enrolled, CPR quality was electronically recorded for compression rate, depth, and fraction in 6199 (71.1%), 3750 (43.0%) and 6204 (71.2%) subjects, respectively. "Acceptable" quality CPR was defined prospectively as simultaneous provision of a compression rate of 100/min (± 20%), depth of 5 cm (± 20%) and fraction of > 50%. Significant interaction was considered as p < 0.05.

INTERVENTION:

Standard CPR with an activated versus sham (inactivated) ITD.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:

Overall, 848 and 827 patients, respectively, in the active and sham-ITD groups had "acceptable" CPR quality performed (n = 1675). There was a significant interaction between the active and sham-ITD and compression rate, depth and fraction as well as their combinations. The strongest interaction was seen with all three parameters combined (unadjusted and adjusted interaction p-value, < 0.001). For all presenting rhythms, when "acceptable" quality of CPR was performed, use of an active-ITD increased survival to hospital discharge with mRS ≤ 3 compared to sham (61/848 [7.2%] versus 34/827 [4.1%], respectively; p = 0.006). The opposite was true for patients that did not receive "acceptable" quality of CPR. In those patients, use of an active - ITD led to significantly worse survival to hospital discharge with mRS ≤ 3 compared to sham (34/1012 [3.4%] versus 62/1061 [5.8%], p = 0.007).

CONCLUSIONS:

There was a statistically significant interaction between the quality of CPR provided, intervention, and survival to hospital discharge with mRS ≤ 3 in the NIH PRIMED trial. Quality of CPR delivered can be an underestimated effect modifier in CPR clinical trials.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiac arrest; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR); Chest compressions; Effect modification; Impedance threshold device; Quality of CPR

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center