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Plant J. 2015 Aug;83(4):600-9. doi: 10.1111/tpj.12912. Epub 2015 Jul 7.

A host plant genome (Zizania latifolia) after a century-long endophyte infection.

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State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, 310006, China.
Department of Agronomy & Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Crop Germplasm Resources, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China.
BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, 518083, China.
College of Life Science, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou, 310018, China.
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory, and Department of Plant Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48864, USA.
Department of Molecular Phytopathology, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, D-24118, Kiel, Germany.
State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100093, China.
Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831, USA.
State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China.


Despite the importance of host-microbe interactions in natural ecosystems, agriculture and medicine, the impact of long-term (especially decades or longer) microbial colonization on the dynamics of host genomes is not well understood. The vegetable crop 'Jiaobai' with enlarged edible stems was domesticated from wild Zizania latifolia (Oryzeae) approximately 2000 years ago as a result of persistent infection by a fungal endophyte, Ustilago esculenta. Asexual propagation via infected rhizomes is the only means of Jiaobai production, and the Z. latifolia-endophyte complex has been maintained continuously for two centuries. Here, genomic analysis revealed that cultivated Z. latifolia has a significantly smaller repertoire of immune receptors compared with wild Z. latifolia. There are widespread gene losses/mutations and expression changes in the plant-pathogen interaction pathway in Jiaobai. These results show that continuous long-standing endophyte association can have a major effect on the evolution of the structural and transcriptomic components of the host genome.


Jiaobai; Zizania; genome; host-microbe interaction; resistance gene analogs

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