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J Conserv Dent. 2015 May-Jun;18(3):232-6. doi: 10.4103/0972-0707.157260.

Root and canal morphology of maxillary first premolar teeth in north Indian population using clearing technique: An in vitro study.

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Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Kothiwal Dental College and Research Centre, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Department of Oral Pathology, Kothiwal Dental College and Research Centre, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.



The purpose of this study was to determine the root form and canal configuration in maxillary first premolars.


A total of 250 extracted human adult maxillary first premolar teeth from North Indian population were collected. Access cavities were prepared and the coronal pulp tissue was extirpated. The samples were stored in 5% nitric acid solution for 5 days. They were then rinsed, dried, and dehydrated using increasing concentrations of ethanol (70, 80, and 95%) successively for 1 day. Teeth were rendered transparent by immersing in methyl salicylate. India ink was then injected. The root canal morphology was examined under stereomicroscope.


53.6% were single rooted followed by fused root form followed by two root form. 0.4% had three rooted maxillary first premolar. Variable root canal configurations were also found. Type IV configuration was most prevalent (33.2%). Two teeth showed an additional configuration. Lateral canals were present in 34.8% of the samples and intercanal communications in 16%.


Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that in North Indian population, there was an increased propensity for types IV, I, II, and III canal morphologies in maxillary first premolars. Single root form was most common.


Canal morphology; clearing technique; dehydration; demineralization; demineralization and maxillary first premolars; methyl Salicylate; nitric acid

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