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Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2015;2015:924860. doi: 10.1155/2015/924860. Epub 2015 May 4.

Arginase as a Critical Prooxidant Mediator in the Binomial Endothelial Dysfunction-Atherosclerosis.

Author information

1
Laboratório de Reatividade Cardiovascular, Setor de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde (ICBS), Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Avenida Lourival Melo Mota s/n, Cidade Universitária, 57072-900 Maceió, AL, Brazil ; Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em NanoBiofarmacêutica (N-BIOFAR), Avenida Antônio Carlos s/n, Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil ; Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine, Robert-Rössle-Str. 10, 13125 Berlin, Germany.
2
Laboratório de Reatividade Cardiovascular, Setor de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde (ICBS), Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Avenida Lourival Melo Mota s/n, Cidade Universitária, 57072-900 Maceió, AL, Brazil ; Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em NanoBiofarmacêutica (N-BIOFAR), Avenida Antônio Carlos s/n, Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
3
Laboratório de Reatividade Cardiovascular, Setor de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde (ICBS), Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Avenida Lourival Melo Mota s/n, Cidade Universitária, 57072-900 Maceió, AL, Brazil.
4
Instituto de Química e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Avenida Lourival Melo Mota s/n, Cidade Universitária, 57072-900 Maceió, AL, Brazil.

Abstract

Arginase is a metalloenzyme which hydrolyzes L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. Since its discovery, in the early 1900s, this enzyme has gained increasing attention, as literature reports have progressively pointed to its critical participation in regulating nitric oxide bioavailability. Indeed, accumulating evidence in the following years would picture arginase as a key player in vascular health. Recent studies have highlighted the arginase regulatory role in the progression of atherosclerosis, the latter an essentially prooxidant state. Apart from the fact that arginase has been proven to impair different metabolic pathways, and also as a consequence of this, the repercussions of the actions of such enzyme go further than first thought. In fact, such metalloenzyme exhibits direct implications in multiple cardiometabolic diseases, among which are hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. Considering the epidemiological repercussions of these clinical conditions, arginase is currently seen under the spotlights of the search for developing specific inhibitors, in order to mitigate its deleterious effects. That said, the present review focuses on the role of arginase in endothelial function and its participation in the establishment of atherosclerotic lesions, discussing the main regulatory mechanisms of the enzyme, also highlighting the potential development of pharmacological strategies in related cardiovascular diseases.

PMID:
26064427
PMCID:
PMC4434223
DOI:
10.1155/2015/924860
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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