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Nutrition. 2015 Jul-Aug;31(7-8):981-7. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2015.02.017. Epub 2015 Mar 31.

Short-term effects of ketogenic diet on anthropometric parameters, body fat distribution, and inflammatory cytokine production in GLUT1 deficiency syndrome.

Author information

1
International Center for the Assessment of Nutritional Status (ICANS), Department of Food Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), University of Milan, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: Simona.bertoli@unimi.it.
2
International Center for the Assessment of Nutritional Status (ICANS), Department of Food Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
3
Human Nutrition and Eating Disorder Research Center, Department of Public, Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
4
Department of Child Neurology and Psychiatry C. Mondino National, Neurological Institute, Via Mondino, Pavia, Italy; Brain and Behaviour Department, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
5
Brain and Behaviour Department, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-wk ketogenic diet (KD) on inflammatory status, adipose tissue activity biomarkers, and abdominal visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous fat (SAT) in children affected by glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome GLUT1 DS.

METHODS:

We carried out a short-term longitudinal study on 10 children (mean age: 8.4 y, range 3.3-12 y, 5 girls, 5 boys) to determine fasting serum proinflammatory cytokines (high sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α interleukin-6), adipocyte-derived chemokines (leptin and adiponectin), lipid profile, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity index (QUICKI), anthropometric measurements, and VAT and SAT (by ultrasonography).

RESULTS:

Children showed no significant changes in inflammatory and adipose tissue activity biomarkers, blood glucose, lipid profile, anthropometric measurements, VAT, and SAT. Fasting insulin decreased (6 ± 3.2 μU/mL versus 3 ± 2 μU/mL; P = 0.001), and both HOMA-IR and QUICKI indexes were significantly modified (1.2 ± 0.6 versus 0.6 ± 0.4; P = 0.002; 0.38 ± 0.03 versus 0.44 ± 0.05; P = 0.002, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS:

Only HOMA-IR and QUICKI indexes changed after 12 wk on a KD, suggesting that over a short period of time KD does not affect inflammatory cytokines production and abdominal fat distribution despite being a high-fat diet. Long-term studies are needed to provide answers concerning adaptive metabolic changes during KD.

KEYWORDS:

Adiponectin; Inflammatory cytokines; Ketogenic diet; Leptin; Visceral fat

PMID:
26059372
DOI:
10.1016/j.nut.2015.02.017
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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